Behavioral injury

Capillary Lake and polyp on the right vocal cord

Capillary ectasia in a rock singer with a polyp. The polyp would be the primary cause of any hoarseness or singing impairment because it is on the edge of the vocal cord and prevents closure of the vocal cords. This allows the air to leak out when making sound.

Granuloma on the right vocal cord

Case study (multiple photos): Nearly 60 years old, a cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) was removed from the entire right vocal cord three months earlier. He still had a hoarse voice and a red bump on the vibrating edge of his right vocal cord.

Hemorrhagic polyps during abduction

Case Study (multiple photos): Man in his 30s who yells at a lot of football games. He has bilateral hemorrhagic polyps. These consist of dilated capillaries on the vocal cord margin. When he speaks, these will fill with blood and become larger making his voice progressively more hoarse with use. Summary:  They were removed with surgery.

Vocal nodules - 27 year old

27 yo teacher with chronic hoarseness. Treated surgically. The top photo shows the vocal nodules touching each other and interrupting vibrations. The lower 2 photos are taken six weeks post surgery. The bottom photo demonstrates well the muscle memory from having lived with vocal elevations for some time.

Vocal nodules - 19 year old

19 yo female vocal overdoer with a singing impairment. The 2 thickenings or elevations in the center of the vocal cords represent vocal nodules. That is, thickening of the skin or mucosa where the vocal cords tend to collide with each other when making sound. Left nodule has some tiny blood vessels within it.

Smokers polyps or Reinke's edema during breathing in

This very talkative female in her 50s has asymmetric smokers polyps. She is a 20 pack-year history of smoking. The polyps are most visible when breathing inward, where Bernoulli effect draws them into the airway.