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This section of the website, Diagnosis, is a textbook I have created, updating the book "Why is there a Frog in my Throat?" It describes how to start with the complaint of hoarseness and stepwise move to an accurate diagnosis of the cause of hoarseness and finally define a plan for treatment. There are three major sections, Foundation, Hoarseness and Examination. Reflux is a short essay on the illusion of acid as a cause of hoarseness.

Foundations - The basis for thinking about how sound is created. This includes definitions that are important to understanding voice disorders and an overview of endoscopic anatomy.

Hoarseness - This section describes the various ways a voice can be impaired.

Examination - This consists of two parts: how to hear a voice disorder, then how to visualize the sound impairment with an endoscope.

Reflux - Reflux has its own section because if you have been hoarse, someone will tell you that you have invisible reflux.