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Diagnosis, is a textbook I have created, updating the book "Why is there a Frog in my Throat?" Starting with the complaint of hoarseness, then moving stepwise to an accurate diagnosis of the cause of hoarseness and finally defining a plan for treatment shares with you a logic for accurately assessing the human voice. There three sections; Foundation, Hoarseness and Examination are both essential and sufficient for understanding voice problems.

The final section, Reflux, is a short essay on the illusion of acid as a cause of hoarseness.

Foundations - The basis for thinking about how sound is created. This includes definitions that are important to understanding voice disorders and an overview of endoscopic anatomy.

Hoarseness - This section describes the various ways a voice can be impaired.

Examination - This consists of two parts:

  1. how to hear a voice disorder,
  2. how to visualize sound impairment with an endoscope and stroboscopy.

Reflux - Reflux has its own section because if you have been hoarse, someone will almost certainly tell you that you have invisible reflux.