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A vocal over user who speaks publicly several times per week has developed pain on the left side of his neck for the past month. The pain is from the left vocal process ulceration. He quit smoking cigarettes/tobacco almost 10 years ago.
He has used tobacco and alcohol and declined a biopsy of the lesion so I am not certain of the pathology. The leukoplakia is very exophytic and reminds me of verrucous keratosis. This could represent squamous cell carcinoma as well.
51-year-old who has smoked one pack a day for 30 years and consumed significant amount of alcohol is noted a hoarse voice, throat pain and has coughed up some blood.
The slightly raised area on the center of the right vocal cord is very stiff on stroboscopy.
A young female who develop hoarseness during pregnancy. The bumpy, red dotted growths on her vocal cord are caused by the virus papilloma. She did not want to have surgery during pregnancy and 4 months later, the papilloma has grown to block off more for airway. She actually can still breathe reasonably well through the small opening.