Cancer of the pharynx
Approximately 70-year-old male who has both smoked and consumed alcohol in the past. He also had a cancer removed from the floor of mouth one year ago. He reported a right-sided sore throat and intermittent referred otalgia to his right ear. This exam highlights how using the "trumpet maneuver", cancers of the piriform sinus or lower fairings can be visualized. The patient seals their lips and pretends like they are blowing up a balloon. This back pressure opens up the throat both behind and lateral to the larynx or voice box. Additionally, using the Pentax VNL1590STi High definition endoscope (720p), EPK-i processor, and the various lighting algorithms, the vasculature of the tumor is highlighted further. With the close-up pictures, the edge of the tumor is very distinct from the surrounding tissue. There are tiny little red dots signifying growth of new blood vessels. Cancers tend to release chemicals or hormones that induces neovascularization - new blood vessel growth. The edge of the tumor resembles papilloma virus in terms of their structure and this blood vessel pattern. The center of a cancer often has an uglier appearance. The white scabs, sometimes bleeding and irregular surface at the center are caused by the rapid growth of the cancer. The cells grow so fast that they outstrip their blood supply and they start to die. This central dead tissue creates the irregular surface that gives cancer there's somewhat ugly appearance.